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Zoological Letters 2017 3 :22

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© The Author(s).2017

Received: 19December2016

Accepted: 11October2017

Published: 12December2017



Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma osmolality during early SW exposure. The time course changes in the gene expression, protein abundance, and localization of key ion transporters suggested that the reversal of the ion transport systems was gradual, and we investigate how eels utilize a Na-binding strategy to slow down the ion invasion and complement the transporter-mediated osmoregulation.


Using an electron probe micro-analyzer, we localized bound Na in various eel tissues in response to SW transfer, suggesting that the Na-binding molecules were produced to sequester excess ionic Na to negate its osmotic potential, thus preventing acute cellular dehydration. Mucus cells were acutely activated in digestive tract, gill, and skin after SW transfer, producing Na-binding molecule-containing mucus layers that fence off high osmolality of SW. Using gel filtration HPLC, some molecules at 18 kDa were found to bind Na in the luminal secretion of esophagus and intestine, and higher binding was associated with SW transfer. Transcriptome and protein interaction results indicated that downregulation of Notch and β-catenin pathways, and dynamic changes in TGFβ pathways in intestine were involved during early SW transition, supporting the observed histological changes on epithelial desquamation and increased mucus production.


The timing for the activation of the Na-binding mechanism to alleviate the adverse osmotic gradient was temporally complementary to the subsequent remodeling of branchial ionocytes and transporting epithelia of the digestive tract. The strategy to manipulate the osmotic potential of Na by specific binding molecules is similar to the osmotically inactive Na described in human skin and muscle. The Na-binding molecules provide a buffer to tolerate the salinity changes, which is advantageous to the estuary and migrating fishes. Our data pave the way to identify this unknown class of molecules and open a new area of vertebrate osmoregulation research.

Sodium storage Osmoregulation Mucus Teleost Euryhaline Transcriptome

Studies on osmoregulation have focused on the transport of ions to drive water movement and it is generally accepted that ions in the extracellular fluid (ECF) are regulated at a relatively constant level to maintain plasma osmolality (ca. 300-350 mOsm) in most vertebrates. The gill, intestine, and kidney are the major osmoregulatory organs in teleosts and successful acclimation in both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) environments depends on the composition of epithelial transporters and channels, and metabolic and structural adjustments in those tissues. Externally, the teleost gill possesses various types of ionocytes that absorb ions in FW and excrete ions in SW [ Fanciest Womens Bridal Wedding Prom Party Evening Lace Ballet Flats Pump Shoes 987221 White rbzcY
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3 ]. Teleosts drink copiously in SW and the intestine absorbs the imbibed water by actively taking up monovalent ions (Na + /Cl ) and precipitating divalent ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SO 4 2− ) [ Odomolor Womens Pullon Pointed Closed Toe HighHeels PU Assorted Color PumpsShoes Blue w1QrNcfp
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6 ]. The kidneys perform glomerular filtration to excrete excess water by producing copious diluted urine in FW [ 7 , Carvela Women’s Saint Boots Brown Brown QiPOPXn
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]. These mechanisms were mostly derived from studies using euryhaline species (e.g. eels, salmon, killifish, etc.) fully acclimated to either FW or SW, whereas knowledge during the early transition phase between salinities is limited.


Everything was made with the purpose of pointing our hearts and minds back to our Creator. That is the whole reason why we exist.

Searching for Significance

We’re all searching for something in life. Whether you want to call it significance, purpose, meaning or something else, there is an innate desire in each of us for our life to matter — to have significance and purpose.

We want to explore that desire with you from a biblical perspective and dive into God’s view of your worth. That’s why we created a seven-day devotional, “Searching for Significance.” Each day we’ll explore a different part of God’s perfect plan for your life, and how he ultimately wants you to find purpose and significance through bringing him glory.

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Serving in Jos, Nigeria, Ben and Renee have faced challenges and difficulties living overseas. In this inspiring video, the Kuwitzkys discuss both the sacrifices and life-changing rewards of their work.

In the late 1990s, a massive tsunami struck Arop village in Papua New Guinea, claiming many lives. But through sacrifice, teamwork and faith, the translation team was able to persevere and expand in the face of tragedy.

The Great Message

In this excerpt from a sermon in the early 1980s, Billy Graham challenges all of us to consider our gifts, talents and the commandment from Jesus to deliver the Good News of the gospel in the streets, villages, cities and more.

The Significance of OneWord

Like many people, maybe you’ve wondered how you can live a meaningful and significant life. The truth is that we are living significant lives simply because we have been made in the image of God — and he is the one who gives us purpose. We asked people to share with us one word they would use to describe how they live with significance and purpose each day, and their answers were as varied and vibrant as the people themselves.

The Significance of OneWord

Like many people, maybe you’ve wondered how you can live a meaningful and significant life. The truth is that we are living significant lives simply because we have been made in the image of God — and he is the one who gives us purpose. We asked people to share with us one word they would use to describe how they live with significance and purpose each day, and their answers were as varied and vibrant as the people themselves.


I am strong, opinionated, direct and unapologetically myself. I take advantage of these qualities to advocate and fight for children in foster care in a world that does not always treat them kindly. My sincerity and earnestness shines through, allowing me to effectively convey my mission and strengthen community support for foster children.

— Danielle,


Every day I’m reminded of the second chance at life I was given when I was adopted. Not only does this subconsciously motivate me to serve well in everything I do — and to everyone I meet — but it makes me ask: “What am I going to do with this second chance? Serve myself, or serve the Lord by serving others?”

— David,


I am passionate about social justice issues — specifically fighting against human trafficking — and I think that is displayed in how I live my life. For a year, I interned in India at an aftercare home for girls that had been rescued from brothels. Since then, I am constantly striving to advocate for women and children in vulnerable populations that do not have a voice for themselves. I ultimately want to live out the Bible with my life.

— Sally,


I long to approach each day with a posture of sensitive awareness. My consistent prayer is for God’s senses to become my own. To see what he sees, hear what he hears, feel what he feels. I try to see what so many overlook — the opportunities, the needs, the body language, the beautiful details in each moment. And I act, because awareness without action is empty.

— Austin,


Communities both locally and globally need individuals who aren’t afraid to take the road less traveled and be a part of creating solutions to problems. Market Colors was created because I saw a need for a marketplace for widows living in impoverished areas of Africa. Rather than just being sad about things that are unjust, the world needs people to rise up and create solutions or partner with those who are already doing just that.

— Lizzie,


Too much of the world is focused on the negative, but God is all about the positive: how much he loves us, takes care of us and wants to be there for us. He's put each of my kids in my classroom for a reason. He’s trusted them to me, so how can I not be excited to take care of them for him?

— Bud,

Content to pray for and financially support missionaries, Maralee never expected to be called into the field herself.

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